Frequently asked questions

What is a cyber-physical system?

CPSs (cyber-physical systems) are systems that link the physical world (e.g., through sensors or actuators) with the virtual world of information processing. They are composed from diverse constituent parts that collaborate together to create some global behaviour. These constituents will include software systems, communications technology, and sensors/actuators that interact with the real world, often including embedded technologies.

What is the Overture Tool and what is VDM?

The Overture Tool is an open-source integrated development environment (IDE) for developing and analysing VDM models. The tool suite is written entirely in Java and built on top of the Eclipse platform.

The Vienna Development Method (VDM) is one of the longest established model-oriented formal methods for the development of computer-based systems and software. It consists of a group of mathematically well-founded languages and tools for expressing and analyzing system models during early design stages, before expensive implementation commitments are made. The construction and analysis of the model help to identify areas of incompleteness or ambiguity in informal system specifications, and provide some level of confidence that a valid implementation will have key properties, especially those of safety or security. VDM has a strong record of industrial application, in many cases by practitioners who are not specialists in the underlying formalism or logic. Experience with the method suggests that the effort expended on formal modeling and analysis can be recovered in reduced rework costs arising from design errors.

What is a traffic management system?

A traffic management system (TMS) is a CPS that integrates multiple technologies to improve the flow of vehicle traffic and improve safety. Real-time traffic data from a traffic detection system flows into a Traffic Control Center (TCC) where it is integrated and processed and may result in actions (e.g. traffic routing, hard shoulder running, ramp metering, VMS messages) with the goal of improving traffic flow and minimizing losses.

I am a student and I am looking for a project assignment. Can I participate?

Yes you can! Contact Dr. Nico Plat (, or Prof.dr. Peter Gorm Larsen (, and discuss the possibilities for a project or internship in the context of TEMPO. It helps if you live and study in either The Netherlands or Denmark, or if you are willing to relocate for the duration of your assignment.